What is a geographical indication?
A geographical indication (GI) is a sign used on products that have a specific geographical origin and possess qualities or a reputation that are due to that origin. In order to function as a GI, a sign must identify a product as originating in a given place.
In addition, the qualities, characteristics or reputation of the product should be essentially due to the place of origin. Since the qualities depend on the geographical place of production, there is a clear link between the product and its original place of production.
A geographical indication right enables those who have the right to use the indication to prevent its use by a third party whose product does not conform to the applicable standards. For example, in the jurisdictions in which the Darjeeling geographical indication is protected, producers of Darjeeling tea can exclude use of the term “Darjeeling” for tea not grown in their tea gardens or not produced according to the standards set out in the code of practice for the geographical indication.
However, a protected geographical indication does not enable the holder to prevent someone from making a product using the same techniques as those set out in the standards for that indication. Protection for a geographical indication is usually obtained by acquiring a right over the sign that constitutes the indication.
Geographical indications are typically used for agricultural products, foodstuffs, wine and spirit drinks, handicrafts, and industrial products.
There are four main ways to protect a geographical indication:
- so-called sui generis systems (i.e. special regimes of protection);
- using collective or certification marks;
- methods focusing on business practices, including administrative product approval schemes; and
- through unfair competition laws.
These approaches involve differences with respect to important questions, such as the conditions for protection or the scope of protection. On the other hand, two of the modes of protection — namely sui generis systems and collective or certification mark systems — share some common features, such as the fact that they set up rights for collective use by those who comply with defined standards.
Broadly speaking geographical indications are protected in different countries and regional systems through a wide variety of approaches and often using a combination of two or more of the approaches outlined above. These approaches have been developed in accordance with different legal traditions and within a framework of individual historical and economic conditions.
The term “geographical indications”, in its broad sense, includes a variety of concepts used in international treaties and national/regional jurisdictions, such as: appellation of origin (AO), protected designation of origin (PDO) and protected geographical indication (PGI). For instance,
- “Geographical indication” is defined in the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and in the Geneva Act of the Lisbon Agreement on Appellations of Origin and Geographical Indications.
- “Appellation of origin” is defined in the Lisbon Agreement for the Protection of Appellations of Origin and their International Registration and in the Geneva Act of the Lisbon Agreement on Appellations of Origin and Geographical Indications.
- “Protected Designation of Origin (PDO)” and “Protected Geographical Indication (PGI)” are terms used within the European Union.
Read the full list of geographical indication FAQs.
Virtual Exhibition on Geographical Indications (archived)
The online exhibition, was held from September 6, 2021 to July 31, 2022, and offered visitors the option to discover products from around the world – 39 member states and two intergovernmental organizations - whose quality and reputation are due to their geographic origin.